Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia

IMPRESSUM PDF CONFERENCE ELEKTRANE 2021: FULL PAPERS PROCEEDINGS

Programme with Full Papers Proceedings / Program sa Zbornikom radova
  • E2021-001 PDF AERS INFLUENCE ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENERGY FIELD OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Aca Marković (Energy Agency of the Republic of Serbia)
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 1 - 1
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Aca Marković, AERS INFLUENCE ON GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE ENERGY FIELD OF THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 1
    Abstract text
    In the energy field in Europe, as in Serbia, we are faced with fast changes. Also, technological changes are fast and they are conditioned by the fact that the classic electricity production is supplemented by electricity production from renewable energy sources, and above all by wind energy and solar energy. Today, interconnection pipelines that connect Europe with supply sources are developing and building intensively. Rapid technological changes in the energy field require changes in the national legislation and new approaches in the economic valorization of this applied technology. New knowledge in the field of economic and legal sciences is evolving, which enables adequately monitoring of rapid technological changes in the energy sector. The Law on the Use of Renewable Energy Sources sees the role of AERS in the implementation of this Law in a totally new way. By this Law, the Energy Agency of the Republic of Serbia has got new competences which are reflected in monitoring of development of the organized intraday electricity market, assessing the effects of incentive systems on this market as well as on customers and on investments in the electricity field, determining the maximum market premium or maximum purchase price for electricity and for the purpose of auctions, setting a special maximum feed-in tariff for electricity for kWh, etc.
  • E2021-002 PDF CHALLENGES OF GREEN TRANSITION IN THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR OF SERBIA

    Dragan Vlaisavljević (Public enterprise "Electric Power Industry of Serbia")
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 2 - 7
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Dragan Vlaisavljević, CHALLENGES OF GREEN TRANSITION IN THE ELECTRICITY SECTOR OF SERBIA, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 2 - 7
    Abstract text
    In the next 30-40 years, the electricity sector of Serbia will undergo a transformation in order to meet the climate requirements set for Serbia. The electric power sector of Serbia, as well as the largest producer of electricity in Serbia, and that is PE EPS, should realize the so-called Green transition in order to achieve the climate goals set for Serbia. The development of the strategy as well as the implementation of this strategy in order to achieve a green transition is associated with many challenges, risks and errors both in planning and during the implementation of this strategy. The basic concepts of the green transition expressed in different scenarios should be analyzed and the possible weaknesses of individual scenarios should be pointed out, as well as the required time frames, costs and impacts on customers and producers of electricity in Serbia.
  • E2021-003 PDF USE OF BIOMASS AND HYDROGEN IN THERMAL POWER PLANTS TOWARDS EU CARBON NEUTRALITY

    Christian Bergins, Efthymia-Ioanna Koytsoumpa, Michalis Agraniotis, Torsten Buddenberg, Emmanouil Kakaras, Falk Hoffmeister, Liisa Clemens, Marc D. Jedamzik (MITSUBISHI POWER EUROPE Ltd.)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 8 - 17
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Christian Bergins, Efthymia-Ioanna Koytsoumpa, Michalis Agraniotis, Torsten Buddenberg, Emmanouil Kakaras, Falk Hoffmeister, Liisa Clemens, Marc D. Jedamzik, USE OF BIOMASS AND HYDROGEN IN THERMAL POWER PLANTS TOWARDS EU CARBON NEUTRALITY, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 8 - 17
    Abstract text
    The EU Commission recently has proposed ambitious targets for the energy transition in Europe. The most far-reaching variant should lead to complete carbon neutrality by 2050. To achieve this target, disruptive developments and changes are needed in all sectors. Industry, mobility, heat and power generation need to change the way, energy is handled today. In the end, only a far-reaching efficiency-optimized sector coupling can lead to success. Renewable energy sources (RES) have to become the basic primary energy source in the EU. Only in few EU countries nuclear energy is an option and also thermal use of non-recyclable waste is limited and considered decreasing due to improved recycling technologies. So only wind energy, PV, geothermal and solar thermal energy, hydropower and (local) biomass are available in this scenario. It is obvious that surpluses from power generation must be stored seasonally and that the other sectors (industry, mobility) must additionally be supplied with chemical energy sources (e-fuels, synthetic fuels such as SNG, methanol and its derivatives, hydrogen). This article describes these radical changes in energy technology, which are already partially implemented or at least in the planning stage. The main focus is on the description of technology options such as for example the use of low carbon fuels and hydrogen in existing plants and for new energy supply concepts.
  • E2021-004 PDF MITSUBISHI POWER CONTRIBUTION: CURRENT PROJECTS IN THE AREA OF ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION IN SERBIA AND REGION AND NEW TECHNOLOGY (CCS) FOR THE FUTURE

    Takanori Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Nosaka, Takashi Muramoto, Taukro Ueda (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 6-9 Takara-machi, Kure-shi, Hiroshima-ken, 737-8508 Japan), Tsuyoshi Aihara, Hideto Kawata, Jun Hashimoto (Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd., 3-3-1 Minatomirai, Nishi-ku, Yokohama, 220-8401, Japan)
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 18 - 27
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Takanori Nakamoto, Hiroyuki Nosaka, Takashi Muramoto, Taukro Ueda, Tsuyoshi Aihara, Hideto Kawata, Jun Hashimoto, MITSUBISHI POWER CONTRIBUTION: CURRENT PROJECTS IN THE AREA OF ENVIRONMENT PROTECTION IN SERBIA AND REGION AND NEW TECHNOLOGY (CCS) FOR THE FUTURE, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 18 - 27
    Abstract text
    There is a growing need for Air Quality Control System (AQCS) under the situation that regulation on emission has become more stringent all over the world. To meet the world lowest level regulation in thermal power plants, Selective Catalytic Reactor (SCR), Electrostatic Precipitator (ESP) and Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) is the key components. In addition, reduction of CO2 emission is demanded considering global warming. Not only each equipment performance but system integration as total AQCS is important. In this paper, Mitsubishi Power, Ltd.(MPW) introduces state-of-the-art MPW’s AQCS technology, and on-going Current Major AQCS Projects in Serbia – TENT A FGD and TENT B FGD and completed project in the Region – Ugljevik FGD that contribute to Environment Protection with a great deal. Also MPW makes introduction of CCS technology, one of new technologies for the future.
  • E2021-005 PDF CRITICAL TIMES FOR POWER PLANTS

    Miodrag M. Mesarović (Academy of Engineering Sciences of Serbia)
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 28 - 42
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Miodrag M. Mesarović , CRITICAL TIMES FOR POWER PLANTS, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 28 - 42
    Abstract text
    The UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) in general and Paris Climate targets in particular put in their focus the energy transition from fossil to renewable energy sources and developing technologies for their global deployment fast enough to limit the global temperature rise to less than 2°C or even 1.5°C above its preindustrial level by the end of this century. In the eve of the 26th Conference of the Parties to the UNFCCC (COP 26) in Glasgow UK, the future of many types or ‘colors’ of power plants became questionable because the climate crisis as key subject of the COP 26 seems to be overshadowed by the current energy crisis, the major one since the oil crisis from the beginning of 1970s. Associated technologies like energy storage to cope with the intermittency of solar and wind generation, or carbon capture and storage to enable currently dominant fossil generation to stay operational for a while received much less attention and funding. Natural gas is considered a bridge fuel towards 100% renewables with nuclear fuels almost neglected. Warning signs that these daily policy creations may be extremely critical for power plants came recently from mid-February cold wave in Texas and Europe and from gas and electricity crises in October this (2021), all that augmented by the pandemic Covid19 health crisis. This paper deals with the above critical topics with a glance on nuclear power plants of the past, current and future generations, and a comparison of their principal characteristics with the same of power plants built on renewable and other sources.
  • E2021-006 PDF DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A STRATEGY FOR MACEDONIAN ENERGY TRANSITION

    Kanevce Gligor, Aleksandar Dedinec (Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Skopje, Macedonia), Aleksandra Dedinec (Faculty of Computer Science and Engineering, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Skopje, Macedonia)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 43 - 55
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Kanevce Gligor, Aleksandar Dedinec, Aleksandra Dedinec, DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF A STRATEGY FOR MACEDONIAN ENERGY TRANSITION, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 43 - 55
    Abstract text
    This paper analyzes the possibility of energy transition in Macedonia within the framework of the energy development strategy up to 2040. Namely, a detailed review of the current state of the energy system in Macedonia is provided. Additionally, the analysis takes into account the effect of COVID-19 on the economy and the energy system, which is reflected on the projections of the macroeconomic parameters and energy demand in different sectors. Global trends, as well as policies and measures at European level were taken into account while planning the development of the energy system, with a special attention to the Energy Community guidance. In that regard, the pathways presented in this paper follow good EU practices of renewable energy sources (RES) and energy efficiency (EE) policies, as well as decarbonization, taking into consideration targets and trajectories with realistic dynamics that are adjusted to domestic specifics and priorities. In order to examine the different possibilities for energy system development, three scenarios have been developed: Reference, Moderate transition and Green scenario. All three scenarios are in the direction of energy transition, but with different intensity and dynamics. Although the three scenarios were developed taking into account the same GDP projections, the main differences in the scenarios are in the year of introduction of carbon price, carbon and fuel price projections, as well as the dynamics of policy penetration of the European Union Directives, especially for EE and RES. The modelling is conducted using mainly the MARKAL model. The objective of the MARKAL model is to define the optimal development of the overall energy system based on least cost principle. Additionally, for hourly analyses of the electricity sector the simulation model EnergyPLAN was used. The modeling results are presented using six indicators that are in line with the five dimensions of the EU Energy Union. It has been shown that in order to achieve the energy transition in Macedonia, cumulative overnight capital investments in the range of 9.5-19.9 billion EUR are needed by 2040 (depending on the scenario). It is also shown that the Green scenario, although requires the highest investments, is the most cost-effective scenario. The cumulative savings in the Green scenario are estimated at 6.5 billion EUR, compared to the Reference scenario. The results of the electricity generation by type of technology shows that the realization of the green scenario means that in 2040, more than 80% of the domestic electricity generation will be from renewable energy sources, and the electricity import will be reduced from around 30% in 2017 to 10% in 2040. From the scenario’s realisation perspective, the critical year is 2025, because of the revitalization or decommissioning of TPP Bitola. Because of the high share of RES in 2040 (up to 1400 MW PV and 750 MW wind), in this paper additional hourly analyzes of the needs for balancing and the role of the pumped-storage hydro power plants is made.
  • E2021-007 PDF SOLUTION FOR MODERNIZATION OF A 300 MW STEAM TURBINE PLANT

    Milan V Petrovic, Srdjan Milic, Milan B Banjac, Djordje Petkovic, Teodora Madžar (University of Belgrade – Faculty of Mechanical Engineering), Luka Petrovic, Borivoje Vujicic, Zarko Novakovic (Elektroprivreda of Republika Srpska)
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 56 - 66
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Milan V Petrovic, Srdjan Milic, Milan B Banjac, Djordje Petkovic, Teodora Madžar, Luka Petrovic, Borivoje Vujicic, Zarko Novakovic, SOLUTION FOR MODERNIZATION OF A 300 MW STEAM TURBINE PLANT , Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 56 - 66
    Abstract text
    The Ugljevik thermal power plant (ТPP), with a capacity of 300 MW, has been in operation since 1985. The TPP now works with significant problems, especially with the boiler, which has a reduced degree of efficiency and an increased flue gas temperature at the outlet. Therefore, high-pressure heaters must be switched off in the plant, which reduces the efficiency of the turbo plant, and the power (to about 275 MW) that can be achieved is significantly lower than the nominal one. After 200,000 operating hours, the turbo plant works with deteriorating operating characteristics and, to a significant extent, the spent useful operating life of vital turbine components due to a large number of operating hours and starts. To continue safe operation, a capital overhaul with an extension of the operating life for the next 150,000 hours is planned. In this paper, the feasibility of additional investments in the modernization of the turbine plant is considered. The modernization implies the improvement of the degree of efficiency and the increase of the electric power of the unit.
  • E2021-008 PDF TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF OPERATION OF A 210 MW STEAM TURBINE

    Srdjan Milic, Milan V Petrovic, Milan B Banjac, Djordje Petkovic, Dejan Djukanovic (University of Belgrade – Faculty of Mechanical Engineering), Nenad Jankov, Vladimir Despotovic (Elektroprivreda Srbije, Ogranak TEKO Kostolac)
    Session THERMAL/HYDRO/WIND/SOLAR AND OTHER POWER PLANTS OPERATION CHALLENGES
    Pages 67 - 77
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Srdjan Milic, Milan V Petrovic, Milan B Banjac, Djordje Petkovic, Dejan Djukanovic, Nenad Jankov, Vladimir Despotovic, TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF OPERATION OF A 210 MW STEAM TURBINE, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 67 - 77
    Abstract text
    The Kostolac A2 thermal power plant (TPP) has been in operation since 1980 and, by 2019, had more than 200,000 operating hours. Elektroprivreda Srbije (EPS) is preparing for significant interventions at the turbo plant to extend the working life and increase the power of the unit. The aim of the conducted tests was to determine the current condition of the plant and its individual most essential components and obtain data for the future management and maintenance of the unit as a basis for the planned future modernization. The paper presents the applied measurement techniques, the method of processing measurement data, and the main test results. The specific heat consumption and the degree of efficiency of the turbo plant as well as the operating characteristics of all components of the turbo plant, were determined. Mass and energy balances were made for several operating modes. Based on the results, the influence of deviations of individual parameters and component operation on the block power and specific consumption of the turbo plant was calculated. Guidelines for the operation of the thermal power plant are given.
  • E2021-009 PDF THE ESTIMATION OF FUEL NITROGEN DISTRIBUTION DURING THE DEVOLATILIZATION PROCESS OF COAL BY TG-DTG-MS ANALYSIS

    Dragoslava Stojiljković, Nebojša Manić, Miloš Radojević, Vladimir Jovanović (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Fuel and Combustion Laboratory, Belgrade, Serbia), Bojan Janković (University of Belgrade, Department of Physical Chemistry, “Vinča” Institute of Nuclear Sciences - National Institute of thе Republic of Serbia), Tibor Bešenić, Milan Vujanović (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Zagreb, Croatia)
    Session THERMAL/HYDRO/WIND/SOLAR AND OTHER POWER PLANTS OPERATION CHALLENGES
    Pages 78 - 92
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Dragoslava Stojiljković, Nebojša Manić, Miloš Radojević, Vladimir Jovanović, Bojan Janković, Tibor Bešenić, Milan Vujanović, THE ESTIMATION OF FUEL NITROGEN DISTRIBUTION DURING THE DEVOLATILIZATION PROCESS OF COAL BY TG-DTG-MS ANALYSIS, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 78 - 92
    Abstract text
    Emission control from coal-fired power plants is on the global level in focus last decades due to environmental issues. The emission of nitrogen oxides is recognized, among the other pollutants, as the key environmental problem related to energy production by coal utilization. In this paper, the effect of fuel nitrogen delivery on the NOx precursors (HCN and NH3) during devolatilization processes, for selected coal sample with high content of nitrogen, has been examined. TG-DTG coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) experimental techniques were used for the assessment of nitrogen distribution for HCN and NH3 as intermediate species during coal devolatilization which directly influences the emission of nitrogen oxides during the combustion process. Further by the establishment, the mass balance of nitrogen together with performed analysis of evolved gases the distribution of nitrogen between volatiles and char could be also determined. The obtained data for particular coal samples could be exploited for further coal combustion process optimization in regard to NOx emissions and can be used as experimentally determined input parameters for mathematical modeling of the coal combustion process in large-scale coal-fired power plants.
  • E2021-010 PDF SERVICEABILITY OF X10CrMoVNb91 MATERIAL WITH LOWER PROPERTIES THAN REQUIRED BY STANDARD AND THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNICAL DELIVERY REQUIREMENTS

    Prof Gordana Bakić, PhD, dipl.eng.mech. (University of Belgrade, Mechanical Engineering Faculty), Vesna Perunicic, dipl.eng.matalurgy (Technical Center Inspect, Obrenovac), Ivan Gajić, dipl.eng.mech. (Via Ocel d.o.o., Belgrade), Savo Bezmarević, dipl.eng.mech. (Electric Power Industry of Serbia), Prof Miloš Đukić1, PhD, dipl.eng.mech. (University of Belgrade, Mechanical Engineering Faculty), Bratislav Rajičić, dipl.eng.mech., Aleksandar Maslarević, PhD, dipl.eng.mech. (University of Belgrade, Innovation Center of the Mechanical Engineering Faculty)
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 93 - 103
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Prof Gordana Bakić, PhD, dipl.eng.mech., Vesna Perunicic, dipl.eng.matalurgy, Ivan Gajić, dipl.eng.mech., Savo Bezmarević, dipl.eng.mech., Prof Miloš Đukić1, PhD, dipl.eng.mech., Bratislav Rajičić, dipl.eng.mech., Aleksandar Maslarević, PhD, dipl.eng.mech., SERVICEABILITY OF X10CrMoVNb91 MATERIAL WITH LOWER PROPERTIES THAN REQUIRED BY STANDARD AND THE IMPORTANCE OF TECHNICAL DELIVERY REQUIREMENTS, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 93 - 103
    Abstract text
    Procurement of highly valuable parts of thermal power plants, such as fresh steam pipeline components that are exposed to the highest operating parameters during the operation of the plant, implies defining very precise requirements for the delivery of equipment parts. When there are precise requirements for the finished product, the producers need to obtained strictly control of the production parameters. The importance of each of the requirements is often oversighted by technical persons, both those who procure and those who supply equipment, especially if the requirements are not contained in the standards, but derive from knowledge that is the domain of narrowly specialized scientific fields. In this paper, the importance of both input control and compliance with each of the technical requirements is shown on the example of fresh steam steam pipe components made of X10CrMoVNb91 steel that are delivered with inhomogeneous and in some parts reduced properties. Also, a solution was offered on what to do with such equipment and it was assessed how long it could work safely with lower properties. ________________________________________________ Nabavka visoko vrednih delova termoenergetskih postrojenja, kao što su komponente parovoda sveže pare koje su izložene najvišim radnim parametrima tokom rada postrojenja, podrazumeva definisanje vrlo preciznih zahteva za isporuku delova opreme. Kada postoje precizni zahtevi za gotov proizvod, ispručioci moraju strogo da kontrolišu parametre proizvodnje delova. Značaj svakog od zahteva često promiče tehničkim licima, i onima koji nabavljaju i onima koji isporučuju opremu, posebno ako zahtevi nisu sadržani u standardima, već proističu iz saznanja koja su domen usko specijalizovanih naučnih oblasti. U ovom radu je na primeru komponenti parovoda sveže pare izrađenih od čelika X10CrMoVNb91 koje su isporučene sa nehomogenim i u nekom delu sniženim osobinama prikazan značaj kako ulazne kontrole, tako i poštovanja svakog od tehničkih zahteva. Takođe, ponuđeno je i rešenje šta raditi sa takvom opremom i ocenjeno je koliko dugo bi ona mogla bezbedno da radi sa nižim osobinama.
  • E2021-011 PDF DETERMINATION OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFICIENCY BY ADAPTED MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE ON CHP PLANTS

    Aleksandar Erić, Dejan Cvetinović, Predrag Škobalj, Nikola Živković, Nada Milutinović («Vinča» Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 104 - 119
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Aleksandar Erić, Dejan Cvetinović, Predrag Škobalj, Nikola Živković, Nada Milutinović, DETERMINATION OF THE AVERAGE ANNUAL EFFICIENCY BY ADAPTED MEASUREMENT PROCEDURE ON CHP PLANTS, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 104 - 119
    Abstract text
    The paper presents the methodology for the determination of the average annual efficiency of CHP plants. The method is based on determining the effective efficiency on three different loads in order to obtain a functional dependence of the efficiency and unit load. For the calculation of the average annual efficiency, the annual load of the plant and the calculated functional dependence of the efficiency are taken into account. When calculating the effective efficiency, both methods, direct and indirect, were used. The methodology for determining the average annual efficiency of the CHP plant was implemented on the example of the cogeneration gas power plant "VELEBIT 3B" within the petroleum company NIS, Serbia. The presented methodology can be applied to similar plants for the determination of average annual efficiency.
  • E2021-012 PDF IMPLEMENTATION OF LOW TEMPERATURE DISTRICT HEATING AND PROSUMER AS A NEW ACTOR IN DISTRICT HEATING

    Nataša Nord (Department of Energy and Process Engineering at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Trondheim, Norway)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 120 - 152
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Nataša Nord, IMPLEMENTATION OF LOW TEMPERATURE DISTRICT HEATING AND PROSUMER AS A NEW ACTOR IN DISTRICT HEATING , Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 120 - 152
    Abstract text
    The lecture will give an overview of the district heating development and some example plants in Norway. Further, a brief introduction on motivation for lowering the system temperature with the special focus on the return temperature issues will be given. Consequently, a practical application how to lower the return temperature will be shown. Analysis of the implementation of the low temperature district heating system focusing on the issues on the way to transition toward the 4th generation district heating systems will be presented. Finally, examples from the research on integration of the waste heat from a data center will be given. This will include detail design and optimization analysis of the prosumer as a new actor in the district heating market.
  • E2021-013 PDF SILYZER - HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    Nenad Veljović and Petar Tatomirović (SIEMENS-Energy, Belgrade)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 153 - 168
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Nenad Veljović and Petar Tatomirović, SILYZER - HYDROGEN PRODUCTION, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 153 - 168
    Abstract text
    Hydrogen is the most common element in the universe. Almost all of our chemical fuels are hydrogen-based, albeit in bound form as hydrocarbons or other hydrogen compounds. In order to limit climate change caused by global increases in CO2 emissions, solutions must be found to create carbon-neutral and, therefore, sustainable fuels. This requires, among other things, that hydrogen be produced using renewable energy sources.
  • E2021-014 PDF REPOWERING COAL 2 GAS

    Lazar Radovanović (SIEMENS-Energy, Belgrade)
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 169 - 180
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Lazar Radovanović, REPOWERING COAL 2 GAS, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 169 - 180
    Abstract text
    The main value and goal of replacing coal with gas in existing power plants is the reduction, reduction of carbon dioxide emissions. The main advantages of replacing coal with gas is the use of the existing location with as much as possible the use of the existing power plant infrastructure, and with the improvement of the plant's performance. This concept allows for rapid project implementation. As a result, higher power plants can be achieved on site and with performance very close to the performance of new plants.
  • E2021-014 PDF TECHNOLOGIES FOR NEGATIVE CO2 EMISSION

    Edgardo Coda Zabetta, Jenö Kovacs, Mohamed Magdeldin (Sumitomo SHI FW (SFW), Varkaus, Finland)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 181 - 202
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Edgardo Coda Zabetta, Jenö Kovacs, Mohamed Magdeldin, TECHNOLOGIES FOR NEGATIVE CO2 EMISSION, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 181 - 202
    Abstract text
    As we are facing global climate changes, mitigating measures are being increasingly adopted worldwide. Among such measures, decarbonization has been selected as the most effective. Variable renewable energy sources (vRES, mainly solar and wind power) have championed decarbonization, and will continue for decades to come. Nonetheless, the expansion of vRES needs complementing technologies, including non-variable renewable energy sources (RES) and carbon capture for utilization or storage (CCUS). It is also recognized that there are more profitable alternatives for thermal power plants than becoming just a reserve unit. The additional profitability can come from new revenue streams in additional to conventional heat and power (poly-generation). Such trends are recognizable globally, and very present in most recent EU policies. Sumitomo SHI FW (SFW) has pioneered the development and commercialization of technologies that can be adapted to fulfill today’s expectations of RES, CCUS, and poly-generation: - Fluidized Bed Combustion (FBC) has been at the core of our offerings since the 1970s, and is the most flexible, effective, and reliable technology for RES from bio-residues, thus contributing to the energy supply and reduction of waste without competing for valuable virgin biomass. - Flexi-Burn(R) technology enabling combustion either in air or oxygen combustion mode on the same FBC boiler has been demonstrated in pilot scale (up to 30 MWth) and designed for commercial scale (300 MWth) to capture the CO2 generated in thermal plants, making possible carbon neutrality from fossil fuels and carbon negativity from biomass. - Calcium Looping technology has been successfully demonstrated in 1 MW scale utilizing SFW’s design and knowhow, making this an additional option to decarbonize not only power plants but also other carbon-intensive industries. - Fluidized Bed Gasification (FBG), commercialized since the early 1980s, has been further advanced along with pyrolysis to produce high grade gases, suitable for further synthesis to transportation bio-fuels and bio-chemicals. Individually or synergically combined, these technologies can turn the traditional thermal power sector and other carbon-intensive industries into enablers of the vRES revolution against climate changes, while remaining profitable. In this presentation, integrated examples of FBC, Flexi-Burn, Calcium Looping and FBG will be discussed, along with estimates on burdens and potential incomes from such solutions.
  • E2021-015 PDF EXPERIENCE FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT - POWER UNITS 200+. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY OF CHANGING THE OPERATING REGIME OF 200 MWE POWER UNITS

    Radosław Klon (RAFAKO INNOVATION)
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 203 - 217
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Radosław Klon, EXPERIENCE FROM THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROJECT - POWER UNITS 200+. INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY OF CHANGING THE OPERATING REGIME OF 200 MWE POWER UNITS, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 203 - 217
    Abstract text
    The current transformation of the power system, consisting in increasing the amount of energy generated from renewable sources, causing adaptation of existing thermal power plants to constantly increasing requirements of power grids. Existing electricity generation sources were designed according to criteria that are not necessarily applicable in the current system conditions. The requirements of the Transmission Grid Operator regarding increasing the flexibility of existing power units impose the need to take appropriate actions i.e., lowering the technical minimum of units, shortening the start-up times, increasing load gradient during power unit ramp-up. The Polish National Center for Research and Development has initiated a research and development project called "Bloki 200+ Program. Innovative technology for changing the work regime of 200 MWe class power units” the purpose of which is elaboration a low-cost method to increase the flexibility of coal-fired power units. The idea of the project is elaboration of the method concept for coal power unit flexibility increasing, based on selected real power unit, prepare design documentation, building the new technological installations and changes in control systems for the selected unit, as well as execution of start-up and optimization works, and finally - develop the so-called Documentation of Method determining the solutions giving the best results. RAFAKO has additionally declared ― besides the so-called obligatory project tasks referring to: shortening the start-up times, increasing load gradients and lowering the technical minimum of the unit ― elaboration of technological solutions the purpose of which are increasing the efficiency of the unit during low-load operation, as well as solutions for environmental protection concerning the reduction of mercury emissions in the flue gas in order to meet the requirements of BAT conclusions and the reduction of boron emissions in sewage from flue gas desulphurization installations. The presentation shows the technological solutions used in the project and describes the experiences from the implementation of individual phases of the project.
  • E2021-017 PDF NEW CHALLENGES OF GERMAN ENERGY TRANSITION

    Dragan Stevanović (Engineering & Consulting, HiTES Holding GmbH, Germany )
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 218 - 229
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Dragan Stevanović , NEW CHALLENGES OF GERMAN ENERGY TRANSITION, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 218 - 229
    Abstract text
    The paper presents big challenges in front of German energy transition, the so-called Energiewende, first of all in the power sector. Very high electricity prices for households and industry (the highest in Europe) will continue to rise, despite some indications that EEG-surcharge will drop further and finally disappear completely. The market price will rise further and compensate the part of EEG-surcharge. Wind and solar generation have to rise with a considerably faster rate, leading to more challenging measures for grid stability. The total electricity production will not drop (as predicted in some previous forecasts), but will rise significantly. It has to cover new consumers, like mobility, heat pumps and H2 generation through electrolysis. Electricity is planned to be the main energy carrier, reaching 49% in 2045. The energy storage is still not an important issue, despite of increasing hours with negative market price and very high price peaks in periods with lower supply. Hydrogen is seen as the main solution in covering required generation peaks, despite obviously very high costs. The energy solution is a must, but it will be expensive. For reach societies, like German, that will not be an unsolvable problem. Despite so high costs till now, Germany is not very successful in the reduction of CO2 emissions, taking its place among the biggest European emitters per capita.
  • E2021-018 TRANSITION TOWARDS A LOW-CARBON ECONOMY

    Vasilije Manović (School of Water, Energy and Environment Building 40, Cranfield University, Cranfield, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UNITED KINGDOM)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 230 - 229
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Vasilije Manović, TRANSITION TOWARDS A LOW-CARBON ECONOMY, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 230 - 229
    Abstract text
    There has been a wide scientific consensus that human activities increase greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere, which is a primary cause of global warming and climate change. Carbon dioxide is the most important greenhouse gas, but other greenhouse gases such as methane must be considered. The largest human source of its emissions is from the combustion of fossil fuels. Despite efforts at national and international levels, global production and use of fossil fuels still has not reached peak, and global annual carbon dioxide emissions are increasing. This problem must be tackled with a transition towards a low-carbon economy. There are different approaches to decarbonise the economy, including energy efficiency, renewables, carbon capture, use and storage (CCUS), and nuclear. We need a mix of these approaches: the exclusion of any technology results in the remaining options becoming less feasible and more expensive. The transition is complex and requires a multi-disciplinary approach from fundamental science and engineering principles incorporating environmental, economic, ethical, legal, social, cultural, behavioural, and governance aspects. Long term strategic planning is needed; some technologies and options that work in short term will not be sufficient to meet the decarbonisation targets in long term.
  • E2021-019 PDF FLEXIBILITY OF ELECTRO POWER SYSTEMS AND THE NEW ROLE OF REVERSIBLE HYDROPOWER PLANTS

    Prof Dr Aleksandar Gajić (Academy of Engineering Sciences of Serbia (AESS) and Supervisory Board of the PE EPS), Željko Djurišić (Electrical Engineering Faculty, University of Belgrade)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 230 - 237
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Prof Dr Aleksandar Gajić, Željko Djurišić , FLEXIBILITY OF ELECTRO POWER SYSTEMS AND THE NEW ROLE OF REVERSIBLE HYDROPOWER PLANTS , Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 230 - 237
    Abstract text
    Electricity conversion and storage in periods of lower consumption or available excess production, and electricity production from the stored energy in periods of higher demand or reduced production, are crucial for the maintenance of stable and efficient electrical system. This requirement is especially strengthened nowadays in the world due to the expansion of integration of new wind and solar plants in the electrical systems. These renewable sources are characterized with inherent intermittent production both in daily periods and periods of several days, weeks or even months. Therefore, energy storage facilities and back up plants are necessary in order to enable these renewable energy sources utilization. A number of technologies might be considered for the electricity conversion and storage, but the only mature and high-capacity available technology is based on the pumped-hydro storage plants. This article studies the potential of the pumped-hydro storage plants as the effective and economically competitive technology for the storage of wind, solar, run-of-river and other environmentally friendly energies, as well as energy from other conventional thermal plants including nuclear. Nuclear and coal fired plants can change power output to achieve demand but only at the price of extremely high maintenance cost. In addition, natural gas generators contribute to climate change and pollution only slightly less than coal. The pumped-hydro storage method is the most common storage system in the electricity sector. It is traditionally dependent on natural conditions, usually making use of rivers or lakes. However, some innovative methods have emerged in recent years, such as use of the sea as the lower reservoir (Japan) or a proposal to use a surface reservoir as the upper reservoir and an underground reservoir, possibly below the other, as the lower reservoir. Analyses indicate that there is a strong economic incentive for further investment in pumped-storage installations when other hydro storages and sites are not available. According to the research a large high-head underground pumped-storage plant could be paid off within seven to ten years with average revenue, or even in five years if revenue is maximized. Surface plants at suitable locations can be paid off even in four to six years.
  • E2021-020 RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ITS ROLE IN THE FUTURE OF ENERGY SYSTEM OF REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA

    Petar Gvero (University of Banja Luka Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Stepe Stepanovica 71, 78000 Banja Luka, Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 238 - 237
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Petar Gvero, RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES AND ITS ROLE IN THE FUTURE OF ENERGY SYSTEM OF REPUBLIC OF SRPSKA, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 238 - 237
    Abstract text
    In the last decades, the use of energy on the World level has been growing exponentially, from 8.588,9 Mtoe in 1995. to 13.147,3 Mtoe in 2015. In 2019 participation of fossil fuels in primary energy production was 84,32%. Increased interest in renewable energy sources has appeared, not only because they are alternatives for fossil fuels, but also as the main pillars in the global efforts to mitigate climate changes. It is particularly important to emphasize the EU’s “Green Deal”, which means full decarbonization of the society. This paper analyzes the position of the Republic of Srpska from the aspect of renewable energy sources because as a part of Bosnia and Herzegovina is in charge of its own energy sector development. Special attention is paid to the analysis of the response of the energy sector to today's challenges related to the fulfilment of international, obligations and its transformation towards distributed and viable systems based on the dominance of renewable energy sources.
  • E2021-021 PDF ON COMPETITIVENESS OF POWER SYSTEMS IN TECHNOLOGY TRANSITION

    Prof Vojin Grković, Prof Đorđije Dodijer (University of Novi Sad, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad, Serbia)
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 238 - 252
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Prof Vojin Grković, Prof Đorđije Dodijer, ON COMPETITIVENESS OF POWER SYSTEMS IN TECHNOLOGY TRANSITION, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 238 - 252
    Abstract text
    Power systems technology transition is defined as the process of changing the systems technology structure until a new technology becomes dominant in the electricity generation. Evaluation of a power system’s competitiveness in technology transition is considered. For the competitiveness metrics is used 3ETT Indicator. General approach is demonstrated on the hypothetical power system consisting of five different energy technologies, i.e. wind turbines, nuclear power plants, lignite fired and hard coal fired power plants, as well as combined cycle gas turbines. Sensitivity analysis to cost ratio changes is also performed and corresponding results are presented. Regarding ability of a power system to change the power on demand the power system’s competitiveness is analyzed using dispatchability and ATC Indicators. Obtained results are presented and discussed. The results point out that better competitiveness of the power system can be reached with technology transition from hard coal and lignite fired technologies to nuclear technology than with the transition from hard coal and lignite-fired technologies to wind turbines technology.
  • E2021-022 PDF IMPROVING THE OPERATION OF THERMAL POWER FACILITIES OF PE “ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY OF SERBIA” BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS

    Milena Đakonović, Jovana Šejat (Sector for Energy Efficiency and Environmental Protection in Energy Production, Public Company )
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 253 - 259
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Milena Đakonović, Jovana Šejat, IMPROVING THE OPERATION OF THERMAL POWER FACILITIES OF PE “ELECTRIC POWER INDUSTRY OF SERBIA” BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENTS, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 253 - 259
    Abstract text
    Due to the increasing number of problems in the area of environmental protection on the global level, and also due to the tightening of energy and environmental regulations in Europe and worldwide - Public Enterprise Electric Power Industry of Serbia (PE EPS) pays special attention to the environmental protection issues. All activities implemented by the EPS, encompassing construction of new objects, reconstruction or the regular operation of the existing units, are in compliance with a large number of national and international (including EU) environmental regulations. So far about 600 million Euros have been invested in the environmental projects and it is planned to continue with this type of investment in the future. Besides the implementation of the environmental regulations and standards and investments in technical and technological systems that reduce the emissions of pollutants, special focus is also given to the climate change issues. EPS recognizes the importance of the energy transition as one of the most important actions within the climate change mitigation measures. It is clear that decarbonization is the keyword in the process of the energy transition. However, the energy transition process is slow and financially demanding and requires broad consensus on the modalities of its implementation.
  • E2021-023 PDF COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THERMAL POLLUTION CAUSED BY THE OPERATION OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT

    Mirjana Laković-Paunović, Milica Jovčevski (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia ), Filip Stojkovski (Iska Impuls d.o.o. Slovenia ), Marko Mančić (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia )
    Session ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE ASPECTS OF POWER PLANTS OPERATION
    Pages 260 - 266
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Mirjana Laković-Paunović, Milica Jovčevski, Filip Stojkovski, Marko Mančić, COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF THERMAL POLLUTION CAUSED BY THE OPERATION OF A THERMAL POWER PLANT, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 260 - 266
    Abstract text
    One of water pollution is heat caused by heated industrial wastewater that increases water system temperatures. In power plants and industrial manufacturers, a large amount of water is used. In this paper, the impact of thermal pollution of the Danube River caused by the operation of the Kostolac B thermal power plant B is considered. The Kostolac B thermal power plant uses a once-through condenser cooling system. It uses the water of the Danube River as cooling water. With the help of numerical simulations, the assessment of thermal pollution was performed. 2D and 3D numerical simulations in the Ansys Fluent software package have been developed. The analysis of the obtained results showed a difference in the temperatures of the Danube River at different sections downstream of the thermal power plant. The temperatures of the Danube are higher downstream from the Kostolac thermal power plant, which can be an indicator that there is thermal pollution of this thermal power plant towards the river. 2D and 3D simulations with the same initial and boundary conditions were compared to determine which numerical simulations were more suitable for use. The analysis showed that 3D simulations provide more approximate solutions to measurements read from meteorological stations. Namely, the temperatures obtained by 3D simulations coincide to a good extent with the measurements of the meteorological station located downstream of the thermal power plant.
  • E2021-024 PDF THE NUMERICAL APPROACH OF THERMAL POLLUTION FROM THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Milica Jovčevski, Mirjana Laković-Paunović (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia ), Filip Stojkovski (Iska Impuls d.o.o. Slovenia ), Marko Mančić (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia )
    Session ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE ASPECTS OF POWER PLANTS OPERATION
    Pages 267 - 276
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Milica Jovčevski, Mirjana Laković-Paunović, Filip Stojkovski, Marko Mančić, THE NUMERICAL APPROACH OF THERMAL POLLUTION FROM THERMAL POWER PLANTS , Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 267 - 276
    Abstract text
    This paper presents the results of numerical simulations of thermal pollution from the thermal power plant Nikola Tesla B, which uses the Sava River to cool the condenser. A 2D model was developed in the Gambit program which was later used in numerical simulations using the Ansys Fluent software package. During the formation of the model, meteorological and hydrological data were used, as well as the operating parameters of the considered thermal power plant. The analysis of the existence of thermal pollution in the coastal part of the Sava River, downstream from the thermal power plant, was considered for the summer period from 2015-2019. The summer months were used because it was during that period that the capacity of rivers decreased and temperatures increased. The depth of the Sava River was not considered during the simulations. Mass flow of Sava River and effluent channel were used as boundary conditions. In these analyses, the depth of the Sava River is not considered. The results showed the existence of thermal pollution of the Sava River by the thermal power plant along the right bank. The increase in temperature in the summer months is also significant in the dry years when the flow of the Sava River decreases, the water temperature rises by more than 2° C. With very high temperatures, the living world in the water is endangered.
  • E2021-025 PDF INFLUENCE OF THERMAL POWER PLANT OPERATION ON RADIONUCLIDE CONTENT IN SOIL

    Jelena Krneta Nikolić, Marija Janković, Milica Rajačić, Nataša Sarap, Ivana Vukanac, Dragana Todorović, Gordana Pantelić (Laboratory for Radiation Protection and Environmental Protection, )
    Session ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE ASPECTS OF POWER PLANTS OPERATION
    Pages 277 - 285
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Jelena Krneta Nikolić, Marija Janković, Milica Rajačić, Nataša Sarap, Ivana Vukanac, Dragana Todorović, Gordana Pantelić, INFLUENCE OF THERMAL POWER PLANT OPERATION ON RADIONUCLIDE CONTENT IN SOIL, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 277 - 285
    Abstract text
    Thermal power plants, as potential pollutants that have a great impact on the environment, have, among other things, the obligation to conduct regular control of radioactivity in the living and working environment. Radionuclides that are naturally present in coal used to produce electricity are concentrated in combustion products (ash, slag, wastewater, etc.). As these products are disposed of in the environment, it is necessary to regularly perform measurements to control the presence of natural radionuclides in samples from the environment near thermal power plants. This paper will present the results of testing the content of natural radionuclides in the soil sampled at several locations in the vicinity of TPP "Nikola Tesla" A and TPP "Kolubara" in the period from 2016-2020 years. The measurements were performed in the Laboratory for Radiation Protection and Environmental Protection of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, using the standard gamma spectrometry method after adequate sample preparation. The sampling locations were selected to cover the immediate surroundings of the thermal power plant, where the possible impact of the thermal power plant operation would be most noticeable. Also, sampling was performed at locations that are far from the thermal power plant itself, most often in populated areas, in order to ensure knowledge of the local natural level of radionuclide content in the soil. The measured concentrations of natural radionuclide activity in the soil were monitored over a number of years and a comparison was made between samples taken nearby and those taken away from the thermal power plant, as well as soil samples from other parts of Serbia and literature data. In that way, optimal monitoring of the impact of the thermal power plant operation on the environment is provided.
  • E2021-026 PDF THERMODYNAMIC TOOLS FOR OPTIMISATION OF THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE DECOMPOSITION OF PCB IN THERMAL PLASMA

    Nada Milutinović, Dejan Cvetinović, Aleksandar Erić, Nikola Živković («Vinča» Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy, Mike Petrovica Alasa 12-14, 11351 Vinca, Belgrade, Serbia), Nedžad Rudonja, Milan Gojak (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade 35, Serbia)
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 286 - 296
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Nada Milutinović, Dejan Cvetinović, Aleksandar Erić, Nikola Živković, Nedžad Rudonja, Milan Gojak, THERMODYNAMIC TOOLS FOR OPTIMISATION OF THE HIGH-TEMPERATURE DECOMPOSITION OF PCB IN THERMAL PLASMA, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 286 - 296
    Abstract text
    A methodology using the thermodynamic equilibrium composition calculation to optimise the high-temperature organic waste treatment in thermal plasma was developed. The methodology was demonstrated in the case of high-temperature treatment of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) in a thermal plasma reactor using two different working media, air and water vapour. Calculated results obtained in this analysis show composition of combustible and harmful chemical species formed in the PCB oil decomposition process. Optimisation of the composition of the combustibles can suggest the most economical parameters of the process. Toxic substances emissions are one of the limiting factors in the process of optimization. This analysis can be considered as the first step towards defining optimal operating parameters of the pilot-plasma facility for waste treatment from the ecological and economical aspects.
  • E2021-027 PDF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT AND SUITABLE WASTE-TO-ENERGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Jovana Anđelković, Dejan Cvetinović, Predrag Škobalj, Aleksandar Erić, Nikola Živković (“VINCA” Institute for Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy, Mike Petrovića-Alasa 12-14, 11351 Vinča-Belgrade, Serbia)
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 297 - 310
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Jovana Anđelković, Dejan Cvetinović, Predrag Škobalj, Aleksandar Erić, Nikola Živković, HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT AND SUITABLE WASTE-TO-ENERGY CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 297 - 310
    Abstract text
    Population growth, consumerism, and industrial development have led to the increased hazardous and solid municipal waste amounts worldwide. Incineration, gasification, pyrolysis, smelting, or glazing have been proposed to treat the hazardous waste before disposal in inert soil. This paper discusses the management of hazardous waste, proper legislation treating this field, the quantity of the hazardous waste substances, and energy production potentials from this type of waste materials in the territory of the Republic of Serbia. This paper gives an overview of the available thermal treatment methods and waste-to-energy technologies in terms of their performance and environmental impact suitable for the Republic of Serbia. The analysis showed that proper development of this industrial sector could contribute to increased opportunities for new jobs to help mitigation of environmental issues, which will significately imrove overall Serbian economy.
  • E2021-028 PDF COMPARISON OF IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT BETWEEN THERMAL POWER PLANT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT

    Vladimir Mijakovski (University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Makedonska falanga 37, Bitola, Republic of North Macedonia), Monika Lutovska (University “Mother Theresa”, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia), Filip Vrzhovski (student at the University “St. Kliment Ohridski”, Faculty of Technical Sciences, Bitola, Republic of North Macedonia)
    Session ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE ASPECTS OF POWER PLANTS OPERATION
    Pages 311 - 316
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Vladimir Mijakovski, Monika Lutovska, Filip Vrzhovski, COMPARISON OF IMPACT ON THE ENVIRONMENT BETWEEN THERMAL POWER PLANT AND PHOTOVOLTAIC POWER PLANT, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 311 - 316
    Abstract text
    Electricity generation can be done in conventional (or centralized) way (i.e. in large thermal power, plants fueled by solid, liquid and gaseous fuels, large hydropower plants and nuclear thermal power plants), or in dispersed way, which is defined as electricity production that is not centrally planned, that is not managed by a dispatch center and is most often connected to the distribution network. From the results for the pollution from emissions of gases and waste materials from the Thermal Power Plant (TPP) - Bitola for 2012, the quantities of pollutants in specific values (kg/MWh) have been calculated, for the electricity generation from burning coal-lignite. These results are used for the calculation of the amount of emissions into the atmosphere and waste materials in the environment, from a fictitious (imagined) coal-lignite thermal power plant, with electricity production equal to the production of a real (existing) photovoltaic (PV) power plant with a capacity of 1 MW. The calculations are made for each year separately and in total for the period from 2013 to 2019. Calculations are made on real data obtained from the annual reports of electricity generation for TPP – Bitola and from PV power plant with installed capacity of 1 MW located in Bitola region. It can be concluded that the production of “pure”, or so-called "green electricity" in the future should be further emphasized by building photovoltaic power plants that directly use solar energy, together with other different types of renewable energy sources (RES), mainly wind energy. That is also in accordance with the Strategy for energy development of the Republic of North Macedonia until 2040 that envisages decommissioning of TPP – Bitola and strong growth of electricity generation from RES, mainly PV and wind energy (up to 1400 MW of new PV capacities and up to 750 MW of wind turbines until 2040).
  • E2021-030 PDF INFLUENCE OF THE COMBUSTION SYSTEM CHANGE ON PROCESSES IN THE STEAM BOILER IN TPP UGLJEVIK

    Goran Stupar, Dragan Tucaković, Ognjen Stamenković (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade 35, Serbia), Luka Petrović, Borivoje Vujičić (М.H. Elektroprivreda Republike Srpske, 89101 Trebinje, Republika Srpska, Bosna i Hercegovina), Žarko Novaković, Željko Milanović (Thermal power plant Ugljevik, М.H. Elektroprivreda Republike Srpske, 76330 Ugljevik, Republika Srpska, Bosna i Hercegovina)
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 317 - 334
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Goran Stupar, Dragan Tucaković, Ognjen Stamenković, Luka Petrović, Borivoje Vujičić, Žarko Novaković, Željko Milanović, INFLUENCE OF THE COMBUSTION SYSTEM CHANGE ON PROCESSES IN THE STEAM BOILER IN TPP UGLJEVIK, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 317 - 334
    Abstract text
    The paper presents a technical solution for modernization with the aim of increasing the efficiency of the steam boiler of TPP Ugljevik, which implies the reorganization of the combustion system. More efficient operation of the furnace can be achieved by replacing the existing burners, reducing the number of burner levels as well as the organization of tangential combustion. The flame formed in the shape of a tube around the two central combustion vortices provides a larger amount of heat transferred to the combustion furnace, less fouling of its screen walls and thus a lower average temperature of the combustion products at its outlet. As the chosen reorganization affects the increase of the temperature of the superheated steam and the decrease of the temperature of the reheated steam, it has been proposed to reduce the area of the semi-irradiated superheater and increase the area of the second stage reheater. Taking into consideration that the reorganization of the combustion system may lead to the change of the thermal load of the evaporator located in the furnace, the paper presents the work of the steam boiler operation under new operating conditions. In order to analyze the effects of modernization on the operation of the steam boiler as a whole, an estimative coupling of differential mathematical models of coal combustion processes, flow, radiation of combustion products and formation of nitrogen oxides with integral thermal calculation procedures has been performed. This calculation system enables reliable prediction of operating characteristics of the steam boiler in new operating conditions of combustion, and its application helps assess the quality of the boiler in terms of how effective, efficient, safe and environmentally friendly its operating mode is. In this way, it is possible to form a comprehensive description of the operating mode of the steam boiler. Based on the above, calculations of the steam boiler of TPP Ugljevik have been performed both for the existing and the reorganized combustion system. The presented system of boller operation calculations was verified by measurements performed on the object in question in existing operating conditions.
  • E2021-031 PDF IMPACT ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY MEASURES REDUCTION OF NOX PROCESSES IN STEAM BOILER K-3 OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANT NOVI SAD

    Goran Stupar, Dragan Tucaković, Ognjen Stamenković (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade 35, Serbia), Slobodan Stevanović (Combined heat and power plant Novi Sad, Panonske termoelektrane-toplane, 21000 Novi Sad)
    Session ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE ASPECTS OF POWER PLANTS OPERATION
    Pages 335 - 347
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Goran Stupar, Dragan Tucaković, Ognjen Stamenković, Slobodan Stevanović, IMPACT ANALYSIS OF PRIMARY MEASURES REDUCTION OF NOX PROCESSES IN STEAM BOILER K-3 OF COMBINED HEAT AND POWER PLANT NOVI SAD, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 335 - 347
    Abstract text
    Stricter regulations regarding the emission of harmful gases into the environment, which are to be applied in the coming period, impose the introduction of primary nitrogen oxide reduction measures, implying a modification of the combustion process in the steam boiler K-3 in CHP Novi Sad. Legislative measures prescribe a maximum content of nitrogen oxides of 200 mg/Nm3 in dry flue gases with an oxygen content of 3% for the combustion of natural gas in steam boilers high units. Consequently, the introduction of primary measures of nitrogen oxide reduction was examined in CHP Novi Sad. Considering that the modification of the combustion system may lead to the change of the thermal load of the evaporator located in the furnace, the paper presents an audit of the operation of the steam boiler during the new organization of the combustion process. In order to analyze the effects of modernization on the work of the steam boiler as a whole, an estimative coupling of differential mathematical models of burning natural gas, flow, radiation of combustion products and the formation of nitrogen oxides with integral thermal calculation procedures. This calculation system enables reliable prediction of the working characteristics of the steam boiler in the conditions of substoichiometric combustion and combustion with cold recirculation of combustion products from the boiler exit, and its application helps assess the quality of the boiler in terms of how effective, efficient, safe and environmentally friendly its operating mode is. This enables the formation of a comprehensive description of the steam boiler propulsion mode. Based on the above, calculations of the CHP Novi Sad steam boiler have been performed both for the existing and the reorganized combustion system. The work shows an analysis of the impact of more parameters on the work of the steam boiler with different primary measures.
  • E2021-032 PDF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: A REVIEW OF THE TECHNOLOGY AND MODELING APPROACHES

    I. D. Tomanović, S. V. Belošević, N. Đ. Crnomarković, A.R. Milićević, A. D. Stojanović (VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, National Institute of the Republic of Serbia, Laboratory for Thermal Engineering and Energy)
    Session ENVIRONMENTAL AND CLIMATE ASPECTS OF POWER PLANTS OPERATION
    Pages 348 - 359
    How to Cite this Paper?
    I. D. Tomanović, S. V. Belošević, N. Đ. Crnomarković, A.R. Milićević, A. D. Stojanović, SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION FOR NOx ABATEMENT: A REVIEW OF THE TECHNOLOGY AND MODELING APPROACHES, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 348 - 359
    Abstract text
    To address the problems of NOx emission from stationary sources and comply with ever stringent emission limits, operating and new boilers are being retrofitted with selective non-catalytic and/or catalytic reduction (SNCR and SCR) methods, often in addition to primary measures. Common, well-optimized SCR reactor designs usually yield much higher NOx reduction rates compared to other technologies, but at the cost of additional power consumption for unit operation. In addition to the SCR configurations, the catalysts used in power plant SCR reactors are discussed in the paper, together with the chemistry behind the SCR process. The selection of catalyst and the design of honeycomb structure highly depends on the local conditions, mainly the operating temperature, particulate matter, and the concentration of the other chemical compounds found in flue gas, such as the SO2 which may cause problems with catalyst poisoning. The chemistry within the SCR systems consists of selective catalytic reduction reactions, which should be optimized to have high reaction rates. These reactions occur at the catalyst wall surfaces. However, undesirable reactions, such as conversion of ammonia and NO to N2O can be also expected. Reactions of non-selective ammonia oxidation into the N2, NO, and N2O in the presence of O2 at high temperatures occur, as well. The modeling approaches such as porous medium model, source-in-cell model, and density functional theory are also reviewed and explained regarding their application to problems in SCR reactor.
  • E2021-033 PDF INFLUENCE OF THE ASH DEPOSIT TYPE ON THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION RESULTS OF A PULVERIZED COAL - FIRED FURNACE

    Nenad Đ. Crnomarković, Srđan V. Belošević, Stevan Đ. Nemoda, Ivan D. Tomanović, Aleksandar R. Milićević, Andrijana D. Stojanović (Department of Thermal Engineering and Energy, Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences - National Institute of thе Republic of Serbia, University of Belgrade, Mike Petrovića Alasa 12-14, 11351 Vinča, Belgrade, Serbia), Goran M. Stupar (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, 11120 Belgrade, Serbia)
    Session THERMAL/HYDRO/WIND/SOLAR AND OTHER POWER PLANTS OPERATION CHALLENGES
    Pages 360 - 371
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Nenad Đ. Crnomarković, Srđan V. Belošević, Stevan Đ. Nemoda, Ivan D. Tomanović, Aleksandar R. Milićević, Andrijana D. Stojanović, Goran M. Stupar, INFLUENCE OF THE ASH DEPOSIT TYPE ON THE NUMERICAL SIMULATION RESULTS OF A PULVERIZED COAL - FIRED FURNACE, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 360 - 371
    Abstract text
    Mineral matters in coal appear as organically bound minerals, or grains of included or excluded minerals. During the combustion process of pulverized coal particles in utility boilers, mineral matters transform into flyash particles of various sizes, with one submicron and one or two supermicron modes. The submicron mode is centered around 0.1 micron, whereas the supermicron modes are centered around 4.0 and 8.0 micron, or even 20.0 micron. According to their size, flyash particles reach the furnace walls by several mechanisms: particle diffusion, thermophoretic deposition, and inertial impaction, which is considered the most important mechanism of the particle deposition process in the furnaces of the utility scale boilers. The possibility for the particle sticking on the wall after impaction depends on the physical properties of the particle and wall. The result is the uneven ash deposit layer, which is removed from the furnace walls by temporary activatons of the sootblowers. The ash deposit layer influences the process inside the furnace. It forms resistance for the heat transfer through the furnace walls and reduces the heat exchange between the flame and furnace walls by increasing the wall temperatures. The local thicknesses of the real uneven deposit layer are difficult to find, because of the complexity of the deposition process and difficulties in finding the proper experimental data. An alternative is the usage of the even deposit layer which corresponds to the uneven deposit by some rule. The objective of this investigation was to find the difference of the numerical simulation results when uneven deposit layer was replaced by the even one whose thickness was equal to the mean thickness of the uneven deposits. The plan of the investigation was to conduct the numerical simulations for the uneven and even ash deposits and to compare the selected numerical results. The uneven deposits were formed by the normal, uniform, and gamma distributions. The normal and uniform distributions were selected as examples of the symmetric distributions, with constant and different values of kurtosis. The gamma distribution was not symmetric, and its skewness and kurtosis depended on the distribution parameters. The several mean thicknesses: 0.15, 0.25, 0.35, 0.50, and 1.00 mm were used for all distributions, and several standard deviations were used for every mean value, according to the properties of the distributions. The relative differences of the values of the total heat exchange in the furnace and flame temperatures were compared. For the constant mean thickness, the relative differences of the selected physical quantities increased with an increase in standard deviation. There was no clear distinction between the normal and uniform distributions. The smallest differences were obtained for the gamma distribution, which is for the selected distribution parameters leptokurtic and positively skewed. As small relative differences of the total heat exchange in the furnace and flame temperature were obtained for all examined distribution types, the investigation showed that even deposit layer can be used in numerical simulation for determination of the interval of the gas-phase variables between two activations of the sootblowers.
  • E2021-034 PDF THE CALCULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW THROUGH A SINGLE STAGE AXIAL GAS TURBINE

    Petar Babić (Masinski fakultet u Banjoj Luci), Milan V. Petrović (Masinski fakultet u Beogradu)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 372 - 379
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Petar Babić, Milan V. Petrović, THE CALCULATION OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL FLOW THROUGH A SINGLE STAGE AXIAL GAS TURBINE, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 372 - 379
    Abstract text
    The main goal of this study is to investigate the performance of a gas turbine at extremely low load operation and to provide further insight into the three-dimensional flow phenomena that are characteristic of the low load operation. This has been achieved through the 3D flow simulation in the single stage test turbine using the software package Ansys CFX. The flow has been simulated with the two different turbulence models, k-ε and k-ω SST, and the results have been compared to the measurements. It has shown that the numerical calculation was capable of predicting the flow phenomena that are characteristic even of the extremely low load operation. The calculated values of the flow variables show good agreement with the measured data.
  • E2021-035 PDF DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR POWER PLANT OF 500 KW ON THE ROOF OF THE FACTORY GRUNER Serbian d.o.o –VLASOTINCE

    Željko V.Despotović, PhD.E.E (Mihajlo Pupin Institute, University of Belgrade, Serbia), Miodrag Vuković, PhD.M.E (Conseko Inzenjering d.o.o, Belgrade, Serbia), Bojan Simonović, MSc.E.E (GRUNER Serbian d.o.o, Vlasotince, Serbia)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 380 - 395
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Željko V.Despotović, PhD.E.E, Miodrag Vuković, PhD.M.E, Bojan Simonović, MSc.E.E, DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF A PHOTOVOLTAIC SOLAR POWER PLANT OF 500 KW ON THE ROOF OF THE FACTORY GRUNER Serbian d.o.o –VLASOTINCE, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 380 - 395
    Abstract text
    The paper presents the design, construction and technical performance of a photovoltaic solar power plant installed on the roof of the factory GRUNER Serbian d..o.o. The main purpose of the solar power plant is to electrical supplying consumers in the factory. In addition, considering the free areas on the factory building and the profile of electrical consumption, the concept of a photovoltaic solar power plant was chosen, which achieves parallel operation with the electrical distribution network and with the possibility of returning excess electrical energy in the same. Based on the obtained conditions for the design of solar power plant and its to electrical grid connection, from the competent Electrical Distribution Nis, as well as the Location Conditions issued by the municipality of Vlasotince, a solar power plant with a maximum output power of 500 kW was designed and constructed. The solar power plant is connected to the electrical distribution network at the end of September 2021 and is currently in use by the factory GRUNER Serbian d.o.o in Vlasotince.
  • E2021-036 PDF HYBRID POWER SUPPLY OF THE AGROKAPILARIS® SYSTEM FOR IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLE CROPS ON THE PLOT

    Željko V.Despotović, PhD.E.E (Mihajlo Pupin Institute, University of Belgrade, Serbia), Ilija Stevanović, MSc.M.E (Mihajlo Pupin Institute, University of Belgrade, Serbia)
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 396 - 409
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Željko V.Despotović, PhD.E.E, Ilija Stevanović, MSc.M.E, HYBRID POWER SUPPLY OF THE AGROKAPILARIS® SYSTEM FOR IRRIGATION OF VEGETABLE CROPS ON THE PLOT , Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 396 - 409
    Abstract text
    The paper presents the design and implementation of a hybrid power supply system used in the "Agrokapilaris®" system, for irrigation of vegetable crops on the experimental plot of the Secondary Technical Agricultural-Chemical School from Obrenovac, at the location of the village Grabovac. The hybrid power supply system is based predominantly on the use of renewable energy sources (wind and solar) with the use of a battery bank, and an electronically controlled the fast static switch is additionally realized, which, if necessary, ensures switching the system electrical distribution network 230V, 50Hz. The results presented in this paper are part of the results of the project "Natural resources of wind and water in order to improve agro-technical measures of irrigation: application of green technologies in the function of sustainable rural development of Serbia", within the Incentive Program for improving the creation and transfer of knowledge technological, applied, development and innovative projects in agriculture and rural development in 2019. The project is funded by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management of the Republic of Serbia.
  • E2021-037 PDF ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL FOR ON-SITE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FOR COOLING AND FREEZING FACILITIES BY APPLICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAICS

    Marko Mančić, Dragoljub Živković, Mirjana Laković-Paunović, Milena Rajić (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia ), Milan Đorđević (Faculty of Technical Sciences in Kosovska Mitrovica, University of Priština), Milica Jovčevski (Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia )
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 410 - 416
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Marko Mančić, Dragoljub Živković, Mirjana Laković-Paunović, Milena Rajić, Milan Đorđević, Milica Jovčevski, ASSESSMENT OF POTENTIAL FOR ON-SITE ELECTRICITY PRODUCTION FOR COOLING AND FREEZING FACILITIES BY APPLICATION OF PHOTOVOLTAICS , Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 410 - 416
    Abstract text
    Application of photovoltaics can be identified as a measure for lowering electricity costs and reduction of CO2 emissions. The cooling and freezing facilities predominately use electricity for their operation processes. Furthermore, the fruit and vegetable purchase season correspond to the period with the greatest solar insulation periods in Serbia. Electric peak loads in the fruit and vegetable freezing and cooling sector are a consequence of keeping the cooling chamber temperatures at a given temperature below zero, keeping the production treatment rooms at near zero temperatures, and freezing processes in the freezing tunnels typically at -40 °C. In this paper, an assessment of potentials to use photovoltaics to reduce electricity dependency from the electricity supplier was analyzed using Trnsys software. The available area for mounting photovoltaics is determined by the available rooftop area of the cooling and freezing facility. Simulation for a typical meteorological year is conducted to determine the average available electricity gain for a cooling chamber. A scenario with panels mounted directly on the rooftop construction with 10° slope and a scenario with angled mounted systems resulting in photovoltaic panel slope of 35° were analyzed. Technical specifications photovoltaic system elements available at the local market were used for the simulation.
  • E2021-038 PDF OVERVIEW OF THE COAL SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SUB-SYSTEM AND SUPERVISION SYSTEM IN PP

    Ivana Todorovic, Vladimir Obradovic (INFORMATIKA a.d., Jevrejska 32, Belgrade)
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 417 - 424
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Ivana Todorovic, Vladimir Obradovic, OVERVIEW OF THE COAL SUPPLY MANAGEMENT SUB-SYSTEM AND SUPERVISION SYSTEM IN PP , Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 417 - 424
    Abstract text
    Informatika a.d. from Belgrade has been present in the Electric Power Industry of Serbia for more than 30 years. In that period, Informatika implemented a number of systems for the management and supervision of technological processes in thermal power plants and surface mines, using PLCs of its own production and its INFO CONTROL SCADA package. On this occasion, the improvement of the part of the coal supply management and control system in the TENT B thermal power plant will be presented. The complete system is very demanding and complex, both due to technological specifics and working conditions (continuous operation in the presence of large amounts of coal dust). The subsystem that we will present here has the task of monitoring the quantities of coal received (data from belt scales) and processing the obtained data. The system enables the creation of predefined daily reports in pdf format with hourly and cumulative data on coal supply, consumption and disposal. Data on the amount of coal are forwarded to the information system of the Thermal Power Plant and are available to all authorized users.
  • E2021-039 PDF TWO STAGE COGENERATION IN DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS

    Goce K. Vasilevski (Mining institute, Skopje, North Macedonia)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 425 - 433
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Goce K. Vasilevski, TWO STAGE COGENERATION IN DISTRICT HEATING SYSTEMS, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 425 - 433
    Abstract text
    The usage of cogeneration units in heating systems is limited by the maximum outlet temperature of these units. In conditions when the built-in heating blocks of the cogeneration units are not fully utilized and when there is a possibility for additional utilization of the output energy from these units, it is possible to increase their energy efficiency. The additional increase of the output parameters of the utilization units, output temperature and thermal power, with a corresponding reduced temperature of the exhaust gases, are confirmed by the appropriate measuring systems. The main problem when connecting cogeneration units to heating systems is the water quality in these systems. In the considered system, due to safety in operation, the connection of the cogeneration block is done indirectly through a district heating station. Increasing the energy parameters of the cogeneration units enables their greater participation in covering the heat balance of the heating system. This effect is especially noticeable at higher outdoor temperatures, while at lower outdoor temperatures there is an appropriate limitation in the use of cogeneration units.
  • E2021-040 PDF THE TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS INSTALLED PARAMETERS FOR THREE DIFFERENT MOUNTAIN WATERCOURSES

    Vidosava Vilotijević, Uroš Karadžić, Vuko Kovijanić (University of Montenegro, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Džordža Vašingtona bb, Podgorica 81000, Montenegro), Ivan Božić (The University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for research, development, testing and optimization of hydropower plants, Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, Belgrade 11000, Serbia ), Radoje Vujadinović (University of Montenegro, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Džordža Vašingtona bb, Podgorica 81000, Montenegro)
    Session DECARBONIZATION, EFFICIENCY, ENERGY RESOURCES, SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND COMPETITIVENESS
    Pages 434 - 444
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Vidosava Vilotijević, Uroš Karadžić, Vuko Kovijanić, Ivan Božić, Radoje Vujadinović, THE TECHNO-ECONOMIC ANALYSIS OF SMALL HYDROPOWER PLANTS INSTALLED PARAMETERS FOR THREE DIFFERENT MOUNTAIN WATERCOURSES, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 434 - 444
    Abstract text
    In the last decade, hydrological data measurements, acquisitions and analyses of various Montenegrin mountain watercourses were carried out comprehensively. The data were analyzed respecting the hitherto known approaches in determining the small hydropower plant (SHPP) installed parameters. The SHPP installed parameter Ki is the ratio of the design flow and averaged perennial flow obtained from the flow duration curve at the planned water intake location. Due to the specifics of the rivers, it was not possible to define the installed parameters easily and clearly. For this reason, an improved multidisciplinary approach was conducted, which would lead to clearer general guidelines for quality and efficient determination of the SHPPs installed parameter respecting environmental requirements for each of them. The range of SHPP installed parameters is determined according to the technical and economic criteria. In this paper, the conclusions for three different SHPPs are presented comparing the calculated results and in-situ ones.
  • E2021-041 PDF COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TWO ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN THE PREDICTION OF THE VIBRATIONAL BEHAVIOR OF A HYDRAULIC TURBINE

    Jovana Petrović (PhD student, The Mihajlo Pupin Institute - Automatika, Volgina 15, 11060, Belgrade, Serbia), Ivan Božić (Associate Professor, University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for research, development, testing and optimization of hydropower plants, Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, Belgrade 11000, Serbia)
    Session POWER PLANTS LIFE CYCLE EXTENSION CHALLENGES
    Pages 445 - 455
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Jovana Petrović, Ivan Božić, COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF TWO ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS IN THE PREDICTION OF THE VIBRATIONAL BEHAVIOR OF A HYDRAULIC TURBINE, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 445 - 455
    Abstract text
    During the operation of hydro units, continuous vibration monitoring is of exceptional importance not only for checking their normal functioning but also for assessing the condition of vital parts in order to make timely decisions for their maintenance, repair and revitalization. According to the analysis of the measured vibrodiagnostic data using artificial intelligence based on artificial neural networks (ANN), it is possible to predict the future vibrational behavior of the aggregate in the short term. The paper presents the application of two ANN models for one hydraulic turbine that has been in exploitation for more than half a century. The real in situ measured data were used to validate the numerical results. The comparative analysis of the obtained results shows the possibility, purposefulness and reliability of the mentioned contemporary tools utilization.
  • E2021-042 PDF DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES EMERGENCE IN THE CONTEMPORARY HYDROPOWER PLANTS OPERATION

    Bogdan Ristić (PhD student at The University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for research, development, testing and optimization of hydropower plants, Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, Belgrade 11000, Serbia), Ivan Božić (Associate professor at The University of Belgrade, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Laboratory for research, development, testing and optimization of hydropower plants, Belgrade, Kraljice Marije 16, Belgrade 11000, Serbia)
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 456 - 462
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Bogdan Ristić, Ivan Božić, DIGITAL TECHNOLOGIES EMERGENCE IN THE CONTEMPORARY HYDROPOWER PLANTS OPERATION, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 456 - 462
    Abstract text
    Digitalization of hydropower plants gives rise to the implementation of new technologies, such as Artificial Intelligence, Smart Energy Systems, Smart Grid, Digital Twins, Industrial Internet of Things and others. These technologies can enable both a single hydropower plant and the whole fleet to function reliably and efficiently within the electric grid. By obtaining sensor-based data from in-situ and beyond, analyzing it in real time and comparing with historic data, conclusions can be drawn for optimization, generation and maintenance predictions. This paper summarizes and reviews the modern approach of these new technologies and their benefits which can enhance hydropower operation practice.
  • E2021-043 PDF A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE STRUCTURAL WARNINGS OF MALFUNCTION IN POWER GRID NETWORKS BY USE OF SIMPLICIAL COMPLEXES

    Miroslav Andjelković, Slobodan Maletić, Ivan Tomanović (”VINCA” Institute of Nuclear Sciences - National Institute of the Republic of Serbia University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia)
    Session IMPLEMENTATION OF NEW POLICIES, TECHNOLOGIES, INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS AND EQUIPMENT
    Pages 463 - 464
    How to Cite this Paper?
    Miroslav Andjelković, Slobodan Maletić, Ivan Tomanović, A METHOD TO DETERMINE THE STRUCTURAL WARNINGS OF MALFUNCTION IN POWER GRID NETWORKS BY USE OF SIMPLICIAL COMPLEXES, Full Papers Proceedings of International Conference "Power Plants 2021", November 17-18th, 2021, Belgrade, Serbia, ISBN 978-86-7877-030-2, pp. 463 - 464
    Abstract text
    Electricity is the backbone of modern society and everyday life highly depends on its uninterrupted supply. In order to make it widely accessible, it is necessary to have an infrastructure resistant to severe disruptions or unintentional islanding. This is one of the main topics of energy informatics research with a focus on overcoming the transmission system challenges, such as the absence of grid reliability, sustainability, and stability. On the other hand, another important course of energy informatics research is to observe distribution system such as volt-ampere and voltage reactivity regulation, power quality and distribution modeling, control, and visibility. Power grid reliability research targets all challenges, limitations, and obstacles in order to create a power grid with high penetration resistance of distributed-energy generation at the distribution and transmission levels. Nonetheless, power interruptions and blackouts occur relatively often due to the equipment failures, causing the power outages. So far, primary action to alleviate this required a more redundant and costly power system. System operators and regulators propose an adequate level of grid sustainability and redundancy, keeping all costs at low level while still preventing the power interruptions. In order to overcome the above issues, we initiate research with an aim to create strategies based on the advanced techniques of algebraic topology and topological analysis of data. For the purpose of this study, simplicial complexes are obtained from the mathematical graph of the US Power Grid network. The so-called clique complex is created to identify higher-order organizational structures embedded within a network that cannot be detected using just the methods of graph theory or statistical mechanics solely. The underlying mathematical graph of the US Power Grid network consists of various kinds of nodes that come from the logical hierarchical organization of a power grid network (see Figure at the bottom). Using detected representative simplices in clique complex, after a few iterations, different hierarchical levels are extracted. Results show that the underlying network has hidden embedment of the most significant representatives with higher-order aggregation than at the level of the initially obtained simplicial complex from a mathematical graph. A node that naturally originates on a lower hierarchical level can be found mixed within the same simplex with nodes that belong on a higher hierarchical level, and vice versa, presenting the potential problem, hence indicating avenues of future research.